Research conducted by the MARINA Lab relates to humans and there interaction with marine and freshwater resources and services. Our work generally falls into four research themes:
Sea Food: How do fisheries and aquaculture support human nutrition and health?
Sea Change: How are coastal and riparian communities, environments and economies affected by and adapting to a changing world?
Oceans Apart: understanding competing values and visions for fisheries and aquaculture development and marine conservation.
Photo: Lift-net fishing platforms in Tonle Sap, Cambodia by Eddie Allison.
Since the global food price shocks of 2007-8 addressing food security has returned to the top of the international development agenda. Increased awareness of the ‘hidden hunger’ of micronutrient deficiencies and the importance of fish as a source of essential micronutrients have combined to make fisheries and aquaculture a key area of consideration for public health policy. Environmental and ethical concerns for the way we harvest produce, distribute and consume our food are also reflected in a proliferation of consumer guidelines and seafood labeling schemes.
The broad research questions our group is pursing under this theme are:
John Cheney (MMA, SMEA) – Health risks of oyster consumption in Washington State
Raye Evrard (MMA, SMEA) – Shellfish aquaculture’s carbon footprint
Allison, E.H. (2011). Fisheries, aquaculture, poverty and food security. WorldFish Center Working Papers 2011-65, Penang, Malaysia.
Béné, C., M. Phillips and E.H. Allison (2011). The forgotten service: Food as an ecosystem service from estuarine and coastal zones. In: Wolanski E. and McLusky D.S. (eds) Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, Vol 12, Waltham, MA: Academic Press, 147-180.
Bell, J.D., V. Allain, E.H. Allison, S. Andréfouët, N.L. Andrew, M.J. Batty, M. Blanc, J.M. Dambacher, J. Hampton, Q. Hanich, et al. (2015). Diversifying the use of tuna to improve food security and public health in Pacific Island countries and territories, Marine Policy 51: 584-591
McClanahan, T., E.H. Allison and J.E. Cinner (2015). Managing fisheries for human and food security. Fish and Fisheries. 16(1): 78-103. DOI: 10.1111/faf.12045
Hall, S.J., R. Hilborn, N.L. Andrew and E.H. Allison (2013). Innovations in capture fisheries are an imperative for nutrition security in the developing world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(21): 8393-8398
Hughes, S., Yau, A. Max, L., Petrovic, N., Davenport, F., Marshall, M, McClanahan, T.J., Allison, E.H. and Cinner, J. (2012). A framework to assess national level vulnerability from the perspective of food security: the case of coral reef fisheries. Environmental Science & Policy 23: 95-108.
Photo: Atlantic and sockeye salmon by Jack Cheney.
Coastal and maritime societies and ecologies are sites of great dynamism. Global environmental change, globalization of trade, migration, urbanization and changing utilization of ocean spaces pose challenges to people whose lives are linked to the sea and to the governance of coastal zones and oceans. Our group is interested in multi-scale research to elucidate pathways of change and societal responses to them. Some of the question we pursue include:
Merrill Rudd (PhD, SAFS) – Stock assessment in data-poor coral reef fisheries (Committee member; Advisors: Ray Hilborn and Trevor Branch)
Clare Shelton (PhD, UEA) – Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in fishing communities in the Western Pacific
Two NSF-funded Interdisciplinary Graduate Research Training (IGERT) team projects – (1) climate change impacts and adaptation in US cities, and (2) adaptation of Quinalt Nation to climate change impacts on their razor clam fishery (Advisory panel)
Barange, M., G. Merino, J. L. Blanchard, J. Scholtens, J. Harle, E. H. Allison, J. I. Allen, J. Holt & S. Jennings (2014). Impacts of climate change on marine ecosystem production in societies dependent on fisheries Nature Climate Change 4: 211–216
Merino, G., Barange, M., Blanchard, J., Harle, J., Holmes, R., Allen, I., Allison, E.H., Badjeck, M-C., Dulvy, N.K., Holt, J., Jennings, S., Mullon, C., and Rodwell, L.D (2012). Can marine fisheries and aquaculture meet fish demand from a growing human population in a changing climate? Global Environmental Change 22(4): 795-806.
Ahmed, N., E. H. Allison and J. F. Muir (2010) Rice fields to prawn farms: a blue revolution in southwest Bangladesh? Aquaculture International 18 (4): 555-574
Badjeck, M-C., E.H. Allison, A.S. Halls and N.K. Dulvy (2010). Impacts of climate variability and change on fishing-based livelihoods. Marine Policy 34(3): 375-383
Allison, E.H., A. Perry, M-C. Badjeck, W.N. Adger, N.L. Andrew, K. Brown, D. Conway, A. Halls, G.M Pilling, J.D. Reynolds, and N.K. Dulvy (2009) Vulnerability of national economies to potential impacts of climate change on fisheries. Fish and Fisheries 10: 173-196.
Photo: A man by his boat at low tide in a village on stilts in Bangladesh by Nathan Bennett.
Within SMEA’s Human-Natural systems perspectives, we work largely on the human. Our group is very interested in the people who live in, work on or visit coastal areas. We have a particular focus on people who produce, process, trade and consume fish but recognize that coastal livelihoods may be diverse and include non-natural resource sectors too. While we are interested in the impact of humans on biogeochemical and ecological processes, we go beyond characterizing the impact of humans on ‘nature’ and are interested in the broader set of relationships between people and the sea, and so we study what people are thinking, feeling and deciding, and not just what impact their activities are having on marine environments. In particular, we recognize that any analysis of ‘human dimensions’ has to recognize gender, ethnicity, class and other elements of identity and difference.
Our research is concerned with the study of actors and agency and relations between different groups of people using ocean and coastal spaces. We collaborate extensively with anthropologists, economists, human geographers and sociologists and would like to work more with political scientists, social psychologists, historians and others in the social sciences and humanities. Some of the ideas and conceptual frameworks we work with include sustainable livelihoods, resilience, wellbeing, human rights, occupational and place attachment, and institutional analysis and development.
Carole White (PhD, UEA) What keeps people fishing in a declining fishery?
Liliana Bastian (MMA, SMEA) – Marine conservation organization representation of the Bajo, Sulawesi
Jillian Lyles (MMA, SMEA) – Restoring traditional fish ponds in Hawai’i
Laura Deighan (MMA, SMEA) – Implementation of Fisheries Improvement Programs, Gulf of Mexico Snapper Fishery (Committee Member; Advisor: Kiki Jenkins)
Barratt, C. and Allison, E.H. (2014). Does people’s vulnerability undermine the sustainability of community-managed natural resources? Evidence from two fishing communities on Lake Victoria, Uganda. Development Studies Research 1(1): 16-27
Weeratunge, N., C. Béné, R. Siriwardane, A. Charles, D. Johnson, E.H. Allison, P.K. Kumar Nayah and M.-C. Badjeck (2014). Small-scale fisheries through the wellbeing looking glass. Fish and Fisheries 15(2): 255–279
Allison, E.H., Ratner, B.D., Asgard, B.A., Willmann, R., Pomeroy, R.D., and Kurien, J. (2012). Rights-based fisheries governance: from fishing rights to human rights. Fish and Fisheries 13(1): 14-29.
Ratner, B. D., P. Cohen, B. Barman, K. Mam, J. Nagoli, and E. H. Allison (2013). Governance of aquatic agricultural systems: analyzing representation, power, and accountability. Ecology and Society 18(4): 59. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-06043-180459
Armitage, D., Béné, C, Charles, A., Johnson, D. and Allison, E.H. (2012). The interplay of wellbeing and resilience in applying a social-ecological perspective. Ecology & Society 17(4): 15 http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol17/iss4/art15/
Evans, L. S., K. Brown and E. H. Allison. (2011). Factors influencing adaptive marine governance in a developing country context: a case study of southern Kenya. Ecology and Society 16 (2): 21. [online] http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol16/iss2/art21/
Kissling, E., E.H. Allison, J.A. Seeley, S. Russell, M. Bachmann, S.D. Musgrave and S. Heck (2005). Fisherfolk are among groups most at risk of HIV: cross-country analysis of prevalence and numbers infected. AIDS 19(17): 1939-1946.
Allison, E.H., and F. Ellis (2001). The livelihoods approach and management of small-scale fisheries. Marine Policy 25 (5) 377-388.
The schism between traditional ‘wilderness conservation’ and the utilitarian ‘new conservation’ has its analogues in the sea, where large marine protected areas and marine spatial planning represent wilderness and resource management viewpoints on ocean governance. Debates on the relative roles of communal, state and private control of coastal and ocean spaces and resources are shaping investments in fisheries governance reform, the creation of large marine protected areas and marine spatial planning.
Current research is centered on examining the processes and outcomes of fisheries governance reforms and integrated conservation and development programmes. We are interested in applying discourse analysis, the study of policy diffusion, and of networks of influence in marine affairs. Our approach is informed by political ecology and political economy analysis.
Wataru Tanoue (MMA, SMEA) – Catch share programs for Japanese fisheries
Christopher Giordano (MMA, SMEA) – Equity outcomes of ITQ fisheries
Alexander Tanz (MMA, SMEA) – Institutional barriers to ecosystem-based fisheries management in the US
Ratner, B.D., Åsgård, B., Allison, E.H. (2014). Fishing for justice: human rights, development, and fisheries sector reform. Global Environmental Change 27: 120-13
Ratner, B.D and Allison, E.H. (2012). Wealth, rights, and resilience: An agenda for governance reform in small-scale fisheries. Development Policy Review 30(4): 371-398
Béné, C., B. Hersoug, and E. H. Allison (2010). Not by rent alone: analyzing the pro-poor functions of small-scale fisheries in developing countries. Development Policy Review 28(3): 325-358
The WorldFish Center is an international, non-profit, research organization that works to reduce poverty, hunger, and malnutrition in developing countries by making fish more readily available for food and income. The Center provides the sound scientific knowledge needed to increase fish production, guide the management of fisheries and aquatic ecosystems, reverse habitat degradation, and influence policies involving fish and the people who depend on them. Since 1992, WorldFish has been one of 15 independent Future Harvest centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
Too Big To Ignore is a research network and knowledge mobilization partnership established to elevate the profile of small-scale fisheries (SSF), to argue against their marginalization in national and international policies, and to develop research and governance capacity to address global fisheries challenges.
The ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies undertakes integrated research for sustainable use and management of coral reefs. The ARC Centre is headquartered at James Cook University (JCU) and is a partnership of several Australian institutions. Within the ARC Centre, the Cinner Group focuses on the interface between social science and ecology to develop solutions for a wide range of issues facing coral reefs and the millions of people who depend on them. They integrate theories and methods from geography, economics, political science, ecology, and modeling to explore issues at the forefront of applied conservation.
The School of International Development at UEA is a leading global center of excellence in research and teaching in international development. They are committed to making a real difference in the world and their academics regularly advise on policy on major global challenges such as poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Research themes range from Behavioral and Experimental Economics to Global Environmental Justice to Life Course, Migration, and Well-being.
IMBER is an international project that aims to investigate the sensitivity of marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems to global change, on time scales ranging from years to decades. IMBER aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of, and accurate predictive capacity for ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society.