Closing the nutrition gap: a new model for identifying micronutrient content in fisheries and human nutritional deficiency

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Closing the nutrition gap: a new model for identifying micronutrient content in fisheries and human nutritional deficiency

Eddie Allison, along with colleagues Phillipa Cohen, Christina Hicks, and others have published a new paper in Nature out today.

They have developed a new model to predict the concentrations of key micronutrients in marine fisheries, and compare those nutrient yields to the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies in human populations around the globe.

Their research has found that millions of people around the globe suffer from malnutrition, despite nutrient-rich fish being caught in water bodies near their homes. The newly published paper suggests that increasing fishing yields is not necessarily the answer to solving for malnutrition. Instead, if fish catches were more accessible to local, malnourished populations, there is significant potential to improve both food security and reduce malnutrition-related disease.

In other words, a lack of micronutrient-rich food is not the problem; getting that food to those who need it is.

This new model helps to address that problem, by identifying both nutrient availability in fish catches and nutritional deficiency in human populations, and highlighting areas where the nutrition gap can be closed. However, changes in the market and fishery management systems would be necessary to micronutrient-rich fish to those who need it most.

The research was funded by the European Research Council, Lancaster University, the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, the Royal Society University Research Fellowship, the Canada Research Chairs program, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research and the U.S. Agency for International Development.

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Eddie Allison Leads Group of Designers in “Designing the Future of Food” Exploration

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Eddie Allison Leads Group of Designers in “Designing the Future of Food” Exploration

Eddie speaks to the Climate Council in Seattle, WA.  Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

Eddie speaks to the Climate Council in Seattle, WA. Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

Last month, Eddie Allison led a group of designers, urban planners, and landscape architects through a three-day exploration into the role fisheries play in food security and how that role may change in the context of climate change. Organized by the Van Alen Institute, a New York City-based architectural non-profit, the Seattle trip was part of the Van Alen Climate Council’s investigation into “Designing the Future of Food.” 

So what do built environment professionals have to do with seafood and climate change? In the self-reflective words of one Council member, “the things that we talk about and design on a daily basis, whether it’s building material, or laying out a transportation system...there’s a result of what we do.” In other words, as this group of designers and others “build things up in the upland, it affects the waters that are so important to [Pacific Northwest fisheries] and the habitats that exist there.” 

This reflection on the impact of the built environment was thanks to three days worth of purposeful collaboration and cross-discipline conversation about the intersection of climate change and food security. The group worked backwards from the table to the ocean: connecting first with chefs and fish traders, then to processing and distribution facilities, and ultimately to the seafood growing sites on Hood Canal and the natural fish habitats off the Seattle waterfront. 

Commercial fisherman and sustainable seafood consultant, Amy Grondin, co-led the program with Allison, connecting the group to local fish traders and chefs and providing insight into efforts to improve the seafood supply chain in response to changing climate conditions.  Allison and Grondin accompanied Council members as they journeyed from Seattle to Hood Canal, grounding their observations in research and connecting them to places and people who hold the stories of the region. 

Delmas Whittaker speaking to the group at the Port of Seattle . Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

Delmas Whittaker speaking to the group at the Port of Seattle. Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

One of those places was the heart of Seattle’s commercial fishing operations at the Port of Seattle, where Allison’s tales of coastal squeeze displacing communities from historically working waterfronts rang true. With the commercial fleet up fishing in Alaska and a rainy summer sky looming overhead, the Port felt quiet and strangely empty. However, Port authorities Delmas Whittaker and Kelli Goodwin told the group it’s that perception of underutilized space that threatens to have development pressures overtake the Port’s critical maritime real estate. Without this critical maritime hub, getting seafood to the tables of Seattleites becomes evermore challenging and costly. 


Competition for space in the built environment was nothing new to the Council members, but taking the competition to the water was a first. As the demand for seafood increases and shellfish production expands, new aquaculture operations are popping up offshore, on land, and even in the lab. Visits to the Taylor Shellfish Farms, Hama Hama Oyster Company, and the Long Live the Kings facility felt to one Council member like a trip to Frankenstein's lab. He speculated, “You can imagine them actually cutting the cord with the natural world entirely and doing this in a giant chemistry set.”

Taylor Shellfish Hatchery.  Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

Taylor Shellfish Hatchery. Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

Long Live the Kings finfish facility.  Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

Long Live the Kings finfish facility. Photo by Marina Piedade, Van Alen

That vision may not be entirely implausible as the shellfish industry turns to innovative solutions to feed future human populations in the face of environmental change, including ocean acidification. Allison hoped this would inspire the Council to redesign and rethink the future of food systems. Ideally, that alternative future would involve producing quality food rather than just what Allison terms “quantity food.” According to Allison, “If your focus turns to nutrition instead of quantity...that maybe starts to lower climate impacts.” This challenge sparked a dialogue about the potential to decentralize food systems and focus on local, culturally-relevant foods. 

Culturally-relevant, in the case of Seattle, often means one thing: salmon. The Council was fascinated by their visit to the Seattle waterfront and what Allison deemed ‘salmon-centered design.’ Salmon act as a ‘sustainability integrator,’ bringing together the management of fisheries, marine and freshwater habitats, catchment land-use planning, food systems, nutrition and cultural connection to food and place. The Council considered using the idea of a sustainability integrator to map the interconnectivity of food and climate impacts in a ‘foodscape.’ In this way, consumers could see how iconic local foods could be used as symbols and indicators to advance more sustainable ways of living in cities. 

However, solving problems associated with food security and climate change involves multiple systems operating in a complicated web of interactions that left some Council members feeling more baffled than ever. For example, Allison highlighted the contradictory narratives being told about the role of fish in global food and nutrition security. His work, along with that of others, has found that people in general are eating more protein than needed, and the role of fish is perhaps most critical when considering its ability to provide micronutrients essential for healthy development and life. 

Despite the complexity of the Puget Sound foodscape, the Council found themselves motivated to continue thinking about how to improve human life in the face of climate change and food insecurity. While the story of seafood in the Puget Sound region is one fraught with climate vulnerabilities, but it is also one of collaborative efforts by passionate and innovative people determined to see the seafood sector thrive far into the future. It remains to be seen where designers such as those who are part of the Van Alen Climate Council can intervene to help ensure that outcome, but that the conversation now involves such a diversity of influential change-makers - including the people who design and build the cities where most of us now live - is surely a source of hope in itself.

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MARINA at IMBeR Future Oceans2

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MARINA at IMBeR Future Oceans2

Former and current MARINA lab members are in Brest, France at the IMBeR Future Oceans2 Open Science Conference.

Eddie gave a keynote speech on the blue economy and the future of the oceans. He will also give a talk on social ecological systems. Zelin Chen presented a lightning talk on Chinese crab fisheries management, and Hannah Bassett and Zach Koehn are scheduled to present later in the conference.

UW is also represented at Future Oceans2 by Ben Fitzhugh, of UW's Anthropology Department and George Hunt of SAFS, and by former SMEA/MARINA alum Raye Everard.

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Sustainable seafood journey in Seattle

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Sustainable seafood journey in Seattle

Authors: Pei, Sallie, and Zelin

To promote more sustainable use of marine resources, it is important to educate the public on where the seafood they see on their plate comes from and how the fishing industries will affect the environment. In Asia, education on fish in food culture has gained more and more attention as one of the major environmental outreach themes. Ecotourism is the main pathway to promote education and enhance public awareness related to fish in food culture. Further practices are expected to be involved in education like fish to school program.

With an interest in exploring examples of sustainable seafood practices and education outreach in the U.S. West Coast,  Pei, Sallie, and Zelin launched an initiative to synthesize the what people on the U. S. West Coast have done to enhance seafood sustainability in the region. They shared their findings in the popular publication in Taiwan known as the Fishery Promotion Magazine under Taiwan Fishery Agency, Council of Agriculture.  

While they did enjoy the fun of doing desktop research together to review sustainable seafood education and outreach projects such as the Community Supported Aquaculture, Seafood Watch and, Alaska State-Fish to Schools Program, Pei, Sallie, and Zelin also went on an adventure for the project. They visited popular grocery stores and supermarkets like Safeway, Trader Joe’s and QFC, and to see if they could easily trace the source, fishing method, and fish stock information of fresh, frozen and processed seafood available at the store. The team also visited the first sustainable seafood sushi bar- Mashiko Sushi, and tasted the delicious seafood there. Their findings on seafood traceability and their thoughts on Mashiko Sushi is can also be found in the article.

This journey and resulting publication was a way to commemorate the deep friendship that blossomed between the three students from Taiwan, Hongkong, and China, and to demonstrate the importance of  perspective exchange and cultural communications.



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Building a Bridge Between Business Fishermen and The General Public

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Building a Bridge Between Business Fishermen and The General Public

The contribution of the fishery is not just the benefit from the industry, but also a culture, belief and lifestyle. Taiwan has one of the highest densities of fishing ports in the world, with a fishing port every 7.5 kilometers. However, the business fishery is still mysterious for most people, as most don’t know a lot about how different fishing methods work, what kind of species make up the seafood market, how the fishing activity affects our marine environment, and what kind of fishery management regulations exist.

At the same time, although Taiwan has taken conservation measures for coastal and offshore fishery resources in recent years, the effectiveness of resources rebuilding is unclear. Many initiatives, such as marine protected areas (MPAs), are frequently opposed by fishermen. Therefore, to listen to the fisherman's voice is an important way to bridge the gap between the general public. Sustainable use may enable the public to provide more insightful advice on conservation and sustainable industrial development.

Pei reviewed management measures and interviewed 313 fishermen by purposive stratification and snowball sampling in past two years in northern Taiwan, and found there were different perceptions of threat in different groups of fishermen (age, fishing effort and fishing method), which may cause a negative impact to the marine fishery resources and the different opinions toward fishery management regulation.

Pei conducts surveys in Taiwan in efforts to understand the perception of threat to fisheries.

Pei conducts surveys in Taiwan in efforts to understand the perception of threat to fisheries.



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